A fracture is a particular trauma that impacts the wholeness of the bones and the areas around them as well. Such are rarely congenital fractures that happen, as a rule, with various hereditary malfunctions of the body frame, leading to a reduction in its power. Under the action of excessive simultaneous force, a so-called traumatic fracture occurs, and may also provoke a decrease in bone strength (tumor, some endocrine malfunctions, etc.), the fracture happens during action with much less force or spontaneously (such fractures belong to diseased malfunctions). In case of a fracture, beside the bone, there is a chance that the adjacent areas are traumatized as well. The body has a mechanism responsible for recovery: bone tissue can grow together. But in order for this to happen quickly and correctly, the pieces should be matched and fixed correctly. The traumatologist deals with this problem.
Any fracture is distinguished by the way it affects the cilia that surround the bones. The fractures, considering the trauma, have two groups:
- closed fractures. They do not involve traumatizing the epidermis, however, abrasions in the area of the fracture are not excluded;
- open fractures. This is when the integrity of the skin is no longer complete and the bone and adjacent soft tissues can become infected.
If the complete separation of one particle from another did not occur, then a fracture is determined. Depending on the way the bone got traumatized, there are a number of groups of fractures including perforated, stellate, Y-shaped and similar fractures. If there are a couple of pieces formed as an effect of a fracture, then such is a regular fracture. There are certain categories of fractures determined when over two bone pieces are formed. A fragmented fracture is a kind of a fracture with a very large number of small particles. Such bone disorders should be taken care of immediately.
Traditional treatment involves immobilizing, plaster casts are widely used on a fracture. Thus, the fractured extremity should be in a physiologically correct position when applying the plaster. Its distal parts (for instance, fingers with a fracture of a limb) should be open to detect edema and prevent tissue tropism. Infrequently, a fracture needs adhesion – the use of skeletal, cuff, adhesive plaster traction. This treatment helps to neutralize the action of the muscle layers attached to the bone pieces, prevent their trauma and create a perfect environment for healing. The technique of traction gives the greatest effect in case of fractures. A specific weight attached to a wire that is passed through the bone maintains the bone pieces in a position that is optimal for tissue care. The disadvantage of such care is the forced immobilization of the patient, leading to the health decline.
The specifics of operations for a fracture are determined by the size and other similar characteristic features of bone damage and their number. Each specific case has its own peculiarities and nuances of the care techniques and healing. With numerous fractures of large tubular bones, massive bleeding can start.
Bone fracture surgery can be different. The most widely-used operational treatments for this trauma are of three types:
The first method on the list is the connection (reduction) of bones by an operational technique using various devices on the bone. The main advantage of such a technique is the fact that the probability of incorrect bone fusion is reduced to zero, and the healing time is significantly reduced.
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive method of care that is performed to obtain information or to treat intra-articular traumas such as a fracture. This operation is performed using an arthroscope, a type of endoscope. The arthroscope is inserted into the joint through a micro-incision, thereby avoiding extensive impact on the surrounding area and, consequently, the appearance of scars at the bone.
Endoprosthetics is a high-tech operational intervention to substitute the joint with a man-made analog. It completely repeats the form and functioning of the replaced part, this care technique is very efficient for the trauma. Mostly, endoprosthetics is used for knee and hip joints.
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